Bolivia Transnational Issues 1998
SOURCE: 1998 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK
Disputes - international has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights
Illicit drugs world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru and Colombia) with an estimated 46,900 hectares under cultivation in 1997, a 2.5% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1996 levels; Bolivia, however, is the second-largest producer of coca leaf; even so, farmer abandonment and voluntary and forced eradication programs resulted in leaf production dropping from 75,100 metric tons in 1996 to 73,000 tons in 1997, a 3% decrease from 1996; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation
On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former Yugoslavia's three
warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt over three
years of interethnic civil strife in Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement
was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed then
by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian
President MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between
the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining Bosnia's
currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping
force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the
military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities.
SFOR will remain in place until June 1998. A High Representative appointed
by the UN Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the
accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any difficulties
arising in connection with civilian implementation, and coordinating activities
of the civilian organizations and agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The
Bosnian conflict began in the spring of 1992 when the government of Bosnia
and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence and the Bosnian Serbs -
supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at
partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to
form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced
the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement in
Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Federation, formed by the Muslims and Croats in March 1994, is one of
two entities (the other being the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska) that
comprise Bosnia and Herzegovina.
NOTE: The information regarding Bolivia on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Bolivia Transnational Issues 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Bolivia Transnational Issues 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.