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    Bosnia and Herzegovina Government 1998

      Country name
      conventional long form: none
      conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
      local long form: none
      local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

      Data code BK

      Government type emerging democracy

      National capital Sarajevo

      Administrative divisions there are two first-order administrative divisions approved by the US Government - the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and Republika Srpska; it has been reported that the Muslim/Croat Federation is comprised of 10 cantons identified by either number or name - Goradzde (5), Livno (10), Middle Bosnia (6), Neretva (7), Posavina (2), Sarajevo (9), Tuzla Podrinje (3), Una Sana (1), West Herzegovina (8), Zenica Doboj (4)

      Independence NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

      National holiday Republika Srpska - "Republic Day," 9 January; Independence Day, 1 March; Bosnia - "Republic Day," 25 November

      Constitution the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force

      Legal system based on civil law system

      Suffrage 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

      Executive branch
      chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 14 September 1996); other members of the three-member rotating presidency: Kresimir ZUBAK (since 14 September 1996 - Croat) and Momcilo KRAJISNIK (since 14 September 1996 - Serb)
      head of government: Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA January 1997); Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Boro BOSIC (since NA January 1997) NA
      cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
      note: president of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ejup GANIC (since 1 January 1998); president of the Republika Srpska: Biljana PLAVSIC (since September 1996)
      elections: the three presidency members (one each Muslim, Croat, Serb) are elected by direct election (first election for a two-year term, thereafter for a four-year term); the president with the most votes becomes the chairman; election last held 14 September 1996 (next to be held September 1998); the cochairmen are nominated by the presidency
      election results: Alija IZETBEGOVIC elected chairman of the collective presidency with the highest number of votes; percent of vote - Alija IZETBEGOVIC received 80% of the Muslim vote to Haris SILAJDZIC's 14%; Kresimir ZUBAK received 88% of the Croat vote to Ivo KOMSIC's 11%; Momcilo KRAJISNIK received 68% of the Serb vote to Mladen IVANIC's 30%

      Legislative branch bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42 seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Muslim; members serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Vijece Gradanstvo (15 seats - 5 Muslim, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members serve two-year terms)
      elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 14 September 1996 (next to be held NA); note - the House of Peoples is elected by the Muslim/Croat Federation's 140-seat House of Representatives (two-thirds) and the Republika Srpska's 83-seat National Assembly (one-third)
      election results: National House of Representatives: two-thirds chosen from the Muslim/Croat Federation: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SDA 16, HDZ-BiH 7, Joint List of Social Democrats 3, Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2; one-third chosen from the Bosnian Serb Republic: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SDS 9, SDA 3, Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 2
      note: the Muslim/Croat Federation has a House of Representatives with 140 seats: seats by party - SDA 80, HDZ-BiH 33, Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina 11, Joint List of Social Democrats 10, other 6; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly with 83 seats: seats by party - SDS 24, Serb Radical Party 15, Serb National Alliance 15, Socialist Party 9, Independent Social Democrats 2, Coalition for United Bosnia and Herzegovina and others 18

      Judicial branch Supreme Court, supervised by the Ministry of Justice; Constitutional Court, supervised by the Ministry of Justice

      Political parties and leaders Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Bozo RAJIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Aleksa BUHA]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Joint List (consists of the following parties: UBSD, RP, MBO, HSG, and SPP); Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Peasants' Party of BiH or HSS [Ivo KOMSIC]; Independent Social Democratic Party or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO [Muhamed FILIPOVIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Rasim KADIC, president]; Muslim-Bosniac Organization or MBO [Adil ZULFIKARPASIC]; Republican Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina or RS [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Civic Council or SGV [Mirko PEJANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP (formerly the Democratic Party of Socialists or DSS) [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Zivko RADISIC]; Social Democrats of Bosnia Herzegovina [Selim BESLAGIC]; Serb Radical Party of RS [Nikola POPLASEN]; Serb Party of Krojina and Posavina or SSKIP [Predrag LAZAREVIC]; National Democratic Union (also known as Democratic People's Union or DNZ) [Fikret ABDIC]; Serb National Alliance or SNS [Biljana PLAVSIC]; Coalition for a United and Democratic BiH (coalition of SDA, SBiH, LS, and GDS)
      note: 82 parties participated in the September 1997 municipal elections

      Political pressure groups and leaders NA

      International organization participation CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OIC (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

      Diplomatic representation in the US
      chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
      chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
      telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
      FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
      consulate(s) general: New York

      Diplomatic representation from the US
      chief of mission: Ambassador Richard KAUZLARICH
      embassy: 43 Ul. Dure Dakovica, Sarajevo
      mailing address: use street address
      telephone: [387] (71) 445-700, 667-391, 667-389, 667-743, 667-390, 659-969, 659-992
      FAX: [387] (71) 659-722

      Flag description a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

      Government - note Until declaring independence in spring 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia was partitioned by fighting during 1992-95 and governed by competing ethnic factions. Bosnia's current governing structures were created by the Dayton Accords, the 1995 peace agreement which was officially signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC. This agreement retained Bosnia's exterior border and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government - based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Accords also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing internal functions. As mandated by the Dayton Accords, the Bosnians on 14 September 1996 participated in the first post-war elections of national, entity, and cantonal leaders. The Bosnians have been slow to form and install new joint institutions. A new Federation cabinet was sworn in 18 December 1996 and the new Bosnian central government cabinet was confirmed on 3 January 1997. The Bosnians on 13-14 September 1997 participated in municipal elections, postponed in 1996 because of voter registration irregularities.

      NOTE: The information regarding Bosnia and Herzegovina on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Bosnia and Herzegovina Government 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Bosnia and Herzegovina Government 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)