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    Brazil Government 1998

      Country name
      conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
      conventional short form: Brazil
      local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
      local short form: Brasil

      Data code BR

      Government type federal republic

      National capital Brasilia

      Administrative divisions 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

      Independence 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

      National holiday Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

      Constitution 5 October 1988

      Legal system based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

      Suffrage voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

      Executive branch
      chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
      head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
      cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
      elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held NA October 1998)
      election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO elected president; percent of vote - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second direct presidential election since 1960

      Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three members from each state or federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
      elections: Federal Senate - last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1998 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998)
      election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - PMDB 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PMDB 21%, PFL 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%; seats by party - NA
      note: party totals since the fall of 1994 have changed considerably due to extensive party-switching

      Judicial branch Supreme Federal Tribunal, 11 judges are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

      Political parties and leaders Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Paes DE ANDRADE, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jose JORGE, president]; Workers' Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president]; Brazilian Workers' Party or PTB [Rodrigues PALMA, president]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Espiridiao AMIN, president]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Artur DA TAVOLA, president]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS, chairman]; Liberal Party or PL [Alvaro VALLE, president]

      Political pressure groups and leaders left wing of the Catholic Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are critical of government's social and economic policies

      International organization participation AfDB, AG (observer), BIS (pending member), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIPONUH, MONUA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

      Diplomatic representation in the US
      chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
      chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
      telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
      FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
      consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

      Diplomatic representation from the US
      chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
      embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
      mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
      telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
      FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
      consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
      consulate(s): Recife

      Flag description green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

      NOTE: The information regarding Brazil on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Brazil Government 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Brazil Government 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)