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    Canada Geography 1998

      Location Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

      Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 95 00 W

      Map references North America

      total: 9,976,140 sq km
      land: 9,220,970 sq km
      water: 755,170 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly larger than US

      Land boundaries
      total: 8,893 km
      border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

      Coastline 243,791 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
      exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

      Terrain mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

      Natural resources nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

      Land use
      arable land: 5%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 3%
      forests and woodland: 54%
      other: 38% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

      Environment - current issues air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

      Geography - note second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada border

      NOTE: The information regarding Canada on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Canada Geography 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Canada Geography 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
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