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    Syria Geography 1998

      Location Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey

      Geographic coordinates 35 00 N, 38 00 E

      Map references Middle East

      total: 185,180 sq km
      land: 184,050 sq km
      water: 1,130 sq km
      note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory

      Area - comparative slightly larger than North Dakota

      Land boundaries
      total: 2,253 km
      border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

      Coastline 193 km

      Maritime claims
      contiguous zone: 41 nm
      territorial sea: 35 nm

      Climate mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically hitting Damascus

      Terrain primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m
      highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

      Natural resources petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

      Land use
      arable land: 28%
      permanent crops: 4%
      permanent pastures: 43%
      forests and woodland: 3%
      other: 22% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 9,060 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards dust storms, sandstorms

      Environment - current issues deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from dumping of raw sewage and wastes from petroleum refining; inadequate supplies of potable water

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
      signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

      Geography - note there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 1997 est.)

      NOTE: The information regarding Syria on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Syria Geography 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Syria Geography 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
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