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    Turkey Geography 1998

      Location southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

      Geographic coordinates 39 00 N, 35 00 E

      Map references Middle East

      total: 780,580 sq km
      land: 770,760 sq km
      water: 9,820 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly larger than Texas

      Land boundaries
      total: 2,627 km
      border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

      Coastline 7,200 km

      Maritime claims
      exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only - to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
      territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea,; 12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea

      Climate temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

      Terrain mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
      highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

      Natural resources antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore

      Land use
      arable land: 32%
      permanent crops: 4%
      permanent pastures: 16%
      forests and woodland: 26%
      other: 22% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

      Environment - current issues water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification

      Geography - note strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

      NOTE: The information regarding Turkey on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Turkey Geography 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkey Geography 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)