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    Estonia Geography - 2002

      Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

      Geographic coordinates 59 00 N, 26 00 E

      Map references Europe

      total: 45,226 sq km
      note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
      water: 2,015 sq km
      land: 43,211 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

      Land boundaries
      total: 633 km
      border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

      Coastline 3,794 km

      Maritime claims
      exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
      territorial sea: 12 NM

      Climate maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

      Terrain marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
      highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

      Natural resources oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

      Land use
      arable land: 27%
      permanent crops: 0%
      other: 73% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land 40 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

      Environment - current issues air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 4.6 times smaller than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies fell 20 times in 2000 compared to 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

      NOTE: The information regarding Estonia on this page is re-published from the 2002 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Estonia Geography 2002 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Estonia Geography 2002 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 30-Jan-03
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