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    Australia Geography 1998

      Location Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean

      Geographic coordinates 27 00 S, 133 00 E

      Map references Oceania

      total: 7,686,850 sq km
      land: 7,617,930 sq km
      water: 68,920 sq km
      note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

      Area - comparative slightly smaller than the US

      Land boundaries 0 km

      Coastline 25,760 km

      Maritime claims
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

      Terrain mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
      highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

      Natural resources bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum

      Land use
      arable land: 6%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 54%
      forests and woodland: 19%
      other: 21% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

      Environment - current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Desertification

      Geography - note world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

      NOTE: The information regarding Australia on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Australia Geography 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Australia Geography 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
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