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    Mongolia Geography 1998

      Location Northern Asia, between China and Russia

      Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E

      Map references Asia

      total: 1.565 million sq km
      land: 1.565 million sq km
      water: 0 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska

      Land boundaries
      total: 8,114 km
      border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

      Coastline 0 km (landlocked)

      Maritime claims none (landlocked)

      Climate desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

      Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
      highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

      Natural resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

      Land use
      arable land: 1%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 80%
      forests and woodland: 9%
      other: 10% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 800 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

      Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

      NOTE: The information regarding Mongolia on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Mongolia Geography 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Mongolia Geography 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
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