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    Rwanda Economy 1998

      Economy - overview Rwanda is a poor African nation that has suffered bitterly from ethnic-based civil war. The agricultural sector dominates the economy; coffee and tea normally make up 80%-90% of exports. The amount of fertile land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion continue to reduce the production potential. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in October 1990. Civil war in 1990 devastated wide areas, especially in the north, and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. A peace accord in mid-1993 temporarily ended most of the fighting, but resumption of large-scale violence and genocide in April 1994 in the capital city Kigali and elsewhere took 500,000 lives in that year alone and severely damaged already poor economic prospects. In 1994-96, peace was restored throughout much of the country. In 1996-97 most of the refugees who fled the war returned to Rwanda. Sketchy data suggest that GDP dropped 50% in 1994 and came back partially, by 25%, in 1995. Plentiful rains helped agriculture in 1996, and outside aid continued to support this desperately poor economy. The economy continues to face significant challenges in rehabilitating infrastructure, agriculture, health care facilities, and capital plant. Recovery of domestic production will proceed slowly.

      GDP purchasing power parity - $3 billion (1996 est.)

      GDP - real growth rate 13.3% (1996)

      GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $440 (1996 est.)

      GDP - composition by sector
      agriculture: 37%
      industry: 17%
      services: 46% (1995 est.)

      Inflation rate - consumer price index 7.4% (1996)

      Labor force
      total: 3.6 million
      by occupation: agriculture 93%, government and services 5%, industry and commerce 2%

      Unemployment rate NA%

      revenues: $231 million
      expenditures: $319 million, including capital expenditures of $13 million (1996 est.)

      Industries mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin, cement, processing of agricultural products, small-scale beverage production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

      Industrial production growth rate 4.9% (1995 est.)

      Electricity - capacity 34,000 kW (1995)

      Electricity - production 169 million kWh (1995)

      Electricity - consumption per capita 21 kWh (1995)

      Agriculture - products coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock

      total value: $62.3 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
      commodities: coffee 74%, tea, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum (1995)
      partners: Brazil, EU

      total value: $202.4 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
      commodities: foodstuffs 35%, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material (1995)
      partners: US, EU, Kenya, Tanzania

      Debt - external $1 billion (December 1995)

      Economic aid
      recipient: ODA, $NA
      note: in October 1990 Rwanda launched a Structural Adjustment Program with the IMF; since September 1991, the EU has given $46 million and the US $25 million in support of this program (1993)

      Currency 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes

      Exchange rates Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1 - 302.28 (January 1998), 301.53 (1997), 306.82 (1996), 262.20 (1995), 144.31 (1993)

      Fiscal year calendar year

      NOTE: The information regarding Rwanda on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Rwanda Economy 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Rwanda Economy 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)